The waste produced during the handling of chemical and biological products may present risks such as:
– The infectious risk associated with the presence of products containing live microorganisms.
– the risks related to the presence of chemical substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, reactive, cyto- or genotoxic, etc. Chemical products that do not have these properties are not dangerous.
– the mixed risks (chemical and biological) produced by the reaction mixtures of certain tests or the containers used.
– As the liquid waste of the automatic analyzers is very diluted, their infectious risk is considered low.
– The psychological/emotional risks that result from the fear generated in the public, in healthcare professionals or employees handling materials when they identify waste soiled with blood, biological fluids or anatomic parts.
These forms of waste should therefore be sorted, collected and discarded appropriately, since they include both hazardous clinical waste and non-risk waste comparable to domestic waste
7.1 Equipment, supplies
Cardboard cases lined with plastic film
Rigid, plastic, puncture-proof trays
Puncture-proof sharps containers
Plastic trash bags of different colors for contaminated and uncontaminated waste.
7.2 Secretarial area
Non-confidential documents on biological topics are discarded in the paper waste bin; confidential documents are destroyed in the paper shredder.
7.3 Sampling area
Needles +/- tubing, lancets, scalpels
NB: Never recap needles.
| Puncture-proof containers for used needles labeled with the Biohazardlogo
cotton, dressings, syringes, speculums, gauze dressing, blotting paper after bleeding time, single-use gloves, tongue depressors, Ayres spatula, etc.
|Clinical infectious waste box labeled with the Biohazard logo
Blood draw room:
Packaging: of needles, syringes, dressings, medication, alcohol swabs, speculums, swabs.
Drapes, alcohol swabs, paper towels, etc.
Paper towels; antiseptic swabs and their packaging
|Ordinary waste bins.
DISPOSE OF WITH NON-RISK WASTE
7.4 Area for testing and processing of samples, care, maintenance
Contaminated ampoules or empty vials, Pasteur pipettes, blades, cover slides, needles
HIGHLY INFECTIOUS WASTE
Microbiological cultures, feces of patients with cholera.
Contaminated tips, feces, urine bottles and pouches.
capped tubes of blood, sputum, sperm, swabs
small cups, jars, samples, microtubes, pipette tips, plastic pipettes, micro-assay plate, all reaction tubes, single-use gloves, contaminated absorbent paper
BLOOD AND BODY FLUID WASTE
Effluent of the automatic analyzers, effusion fluid, urine
Other dangerous waste
Already used chemical substances (dye, ether, formaldehyde, acids and bases)
Packaging, cassettes, and empty reagent bottles, papers
cardboard boxes, plastics and any other waste without risk.
|Puncture-proof, clinical infectious waste containers
labeled with the Biohazard logo
Autoclavable bags labeled with Biohazard logo:
AUTOCLAVE AND/OR INCINERATE
Clinical infectious waste box labeled with the Biohazard logo
Chemical disinfection and disposal in the drainage system
Neutralization and disposal in the drainage system
Regular garbage bag; disposal with non-risk waste.
Non-risk waste will be collected in trash bags, which may or may not be inside pedal trash cans, and which will be closed at the end of the day and collected by the municipal services.
– Once disinfected and/or packed in suitable containers, infectious waste is no longer considered as such, and can therefore be transported together with other non-dangerous waste. They must never be mixed together beforehand however, so as to avoid transmission of the contamination.
– The filled and sealed tamper-proof containers will be stored with the cardboard boxes for clinical infectious waste
– The contaminated waste collected from the microbiology unit will be placed in an autoclavable waste bag, which will be closed at the end of the day and placed, before or after sterilization, in a cardboard box for clinical infectious waste.
NB: The time limit between the actual production of waste and its incineration or pre-treatment for disinfection is:
– 72 h if the quantity produced is > 100 kg / week
– 7 days if the quantity produced is < 100 kg / week and > 5 kg / month
– 3 months when the quantity is < 5 kg / month
7.6 Treatment and Disposal
As the laboratory does not have an incinerator, the waste to be incinerated will be given to an associate facility that is able to ensure its final disposal.
Reagent and dye residues, as well as the other water soluble chemical products, will be diluted and poured down the sink. Non-recyclable bottles will be made unusable and disposed of like non-risk waste.
In the absence of manufacturer labeling of the devices, the liquid effluents of the automatic analyzers will be poured down the sink or sewer after chemical disinfection (chlorination).
The bags for non-risk waste will be placed near the doorway and taken by the municipal services.
It should be noted that all objects that could be reused illegally must be destroyed before their disposal.
7.7 Procedure for accidental spillage of dangerous waste
Accidental spillage of waste is probably the most common type of emergency involving infectious or dangerous substances or waste. The response procedures are essentially the same as those concerning the accidental spillage of chemical or biological substances or products during use. These procedures should guarantee that:
7.7.1 The impact on the patients, personnel of the facility and the environment is as limited as possible. It is therefore important to confine the pathogenic biological agents in order to protect the personnel and third parties from potential danger, as well as to protect the environment. The contaminated areas will then be cleaned and, if necessary, disinfected.
7.7.2 The workers’ exposure to the risk should be limited as much as possible during the cleanup operations:
7.7.3 The contaminated areas will be cleaned and, if necessary, disinfected.A qualified personnel member must therefore take charge of the collection and cleanup operations. If necessary, he/she will then present a report to the person in charge and to the regulators.
The accidental waste spillage often only requires cleaning of the place where the spillage occurred. However, if infectious substances are spilled, it is important to determine the type of infectious agent; in some cases an immediate evacuation might be necessary. The accidental spillage of the most dangerous substances generally takes place in the room where the substances e handled.